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This is a view of Revolutionary War general William Winds' original home (center of the picture) in New Jersey from present-day Cooper Road. Historians have been able to place Winds in the area in his early twenties sometime in the late 1740s or…

This is a photograph taken by J. Percy Crayon from an area of Denville formerly known as Pigeon Hill. It was taken outside of William Winds' original home in New Jersey. Historians have been able to place Winds in the area in his early twenties…

This is Revolutionary War general William Winds' original home in New Jersey. Historians have been able to place Winds in the area in his early twenties sometime in the late 1740s or early 1750s. The general later moved to present-day Randolph…

The Memorial Stone resting on top of William Winds grave in the graveyard at the First Presbyterian Church in Rockaway, NJ. Worn due to weathering, the text was preserved in 1958 by Kensley Robert Thompson as a black wax rubbing which is on display…

Images of General William Winds' home as it stands today. It is now privately owned by the Cobb family. Most of the Winds house remains, but the Cobbs added a wraparound porch when they purchased it in 1908.

This document is included in Proceedings of the New Jersey Historical Society, Series 1. Vol. VII. 1853-1855. The biography was read by Tuttle in front of the New Jersey Historical Society on May 19, 1853. The author painted a very complex image of…

This is a photograph taken inside General William Winds' home in the late nineteenth century. The photograph was probably taken by J. Percy Crayon, the owner of the house at the time. It includes a fireplace, several chairs, and tools.

Joseph Percy Crain (or Crane) was born in 1841, although it is uncertain where he was born. He moved to northern New Jersey at an early age and became a schoolteacher in the town of Rockaway (now - Denville) where he changed his last name to Crayon.…

This is the last will and testament from General William Winds. Winds was a soldier, judge, and Patriot. He was born on Long Island, but moved to Morris County, New Jersey sometime in his twenties. He bought a tract of land in present-day Denville…

This is a sketch of Rockaway from the Morris Canal in 1844. To the right is the First Presbyterian Church of Rockaway which was founded in 1752. The church's construction was funded by notable New Jerseyans including William Winds, a Revolutionary…

This is a map of Morris County from 1853. Note that the county only had 11 townships - Chester, Chatham, Hanover, Jefferson, Mendham, Morristown, Pequannock, Randolph, Rockaway, Roxbury, and Washington.

J. Percy Crayon was a schoolteacher and amateur historian from present-day Denville, New Jersey. In the late 19th century, he compiled a record of all the major founding families of Morris County. The book includes many important families,…

This is the grave site of William Winds. Winds served the British Royal Army in the French and Indian War and took up the Patriots' cause in the American Revolution. He also served as a judge between wars and founded the First Presbyterian Church…

This is Revolutionary War general William Winds' original home in New Jersey. Historians have been able to place Winds in the area in his early twenties sometime in the late 1740s or early 1750s. The general later moved to present-day Randolph…

This Georgian style home built in the early 1770s in Morristown was owned by Jacob Ford Jr., an American Revolutionary militia officer. After his death, his widow, Theodosia, gave permission for George Washington to use the home as his headquarters…

The Memorial Stone resting on top of William Winds grave in the graveyard at the First Presbyterian Church in Rockaway, NJ. Worn due to weathering, the text was preserved in 1958 by Kensley Robert Thompson as a black wax rubbing which is on display…

The clock tower at the beginning of Broadway in Denville, NJ. It was built to commemorate Denville's centennial.

What is today a post office in Chester was a tavern frequented by miners during the Iron heyday.

The Chester Railroad Company was critical to the expansion of the iron industry in Chester. Stations such as this afforded both experienced and novice miners easy access to the thirty eight mines opened in the area.

The Miller's House is an excellent example of what was known as a Patch House. With the influx of miners as more shafts were opened, housing needed to be quickly provided. Patch Houses received their names due to the fact that they were quickly…

The Chester Furnace was the centerpiece of the iron mining industry in the area. Unlike other area furnaces, The Chester Furnace was state of the art. While other furnaces relied on charcoal, The Chester Furnace relied upon anthracite fuel, which…

Though the present building was constructed in 1826 by Nathan Cooper, milling flour on this site had been going on since 1760 when Isaiah Younglove set up his milling operation there. The Black River area was ideal for mills because of the large…

This snapshot of Chester circa 1880 provides a look at daily life at the time before the first mine shafts were opened. We clearly see Chester's importance as a travel hub, as the stagecoach is waiting to either take on or let off passengers at the…

Daniel Budd and his family were instrumental to the growth of the iron industry in Chester. He not only owned a forge in nearby Hackelbarney, but he was also president of the Chester Railraod.

This church not only served the Presbyterian community in Chester and Mendham, but also members from nearby Roxbury and Mt. Olive. Built in 1852, miners and farmers would have worshipped side by side at this location in the 1880's

Built in 1856, this building is the oldest Congregational church west of the Hudson River. The church's prior site was built in 1747 nearby.

This factory has had several different owners over the decades. It began life in 1844 the Van Doren Brothers built threashing machines for the area farms. Mine baron Daniel Budd housed Davidson Manufacturing in this building after the Civil War. The…

The location of Howell's General store, which served the townspeople, farmers and miners alike, is today a convenience store.

This building was constructed in 1870 for town doctor Dr. Smith Hedges. It also contained a wallpaper and printing business owned by George Conover. Later in the 1880s the building also served as the town post office.

Commissioned in 1808, John Haines of Chester owned 10 shares in the company was was designated it's director. This was a major transportation artery in Northern New Jersey and vital to the growth of the agricultural communities and the mines.

Was known as The Brick Hotel in Chester's mining heyday and built in 1810. It was one of the earliest tavern/hotels in the area. The building was purchased by area mining greats Daniel Budd and Perry Skellenger, who wanted to build a school nearby.

This ore sample was extracted from the Swayze Mine in nearby Roxbury, New Jersey. It is yet another example of the different types of ore found in Northern New Jersey available to the miners of Chester

Track guage is defined as the amount of distance between two railroad rails. The train's gear, or undercarriage, must be a compatible width and wheel size. In May of 1886 the Pennsylvania Railroad and the southern railroads agreed upon a national…

A length of heavy grade railroad rail found outside of the Chester Blast Furnace.

Railroad spikes would fasten the heavy iron railroad tracks to the ground. Larger spikes were commonly used on standard grade railroad tracks and smaller spikes would be used in constructing railcar switches.

Upon removing the ore from the earth, Chester's early miners would need to load the raw minerals from the railroad cars into the blast furnace. Overhead gliders, attached to rails on the blast furnace facility's ceiling would guide containers full of…

The railroads were an extremely critical component of the iron mining industry. Large sized railroad spikes were used in railroad switches, as were the large metal connector plates. The large size of the spikes was desirable due to the intricate…

Slag is the by-product of the smelting or iron ore. As the smelting process nears it's conclusion, the ore's impurities rises to the surface of the molten iron. Different smelting processes produce varying types of slag. In the 1880's it was common…

This mineral is common to Northern New Jersey. Metallic iron ores are normally found in bands underground called banded iron formations. These minerals are high in iron oxide and are commonly inserted into a blast furnace during process known as…

"Pig Iron" is considered to be a mid-level product of smelting iron ore. It is commonly used to produce wrought iron and steel. The above specimin would have been produced straight out of the blast furnace and then transported elsewhere to be…

Weighing close to twenty pounds, these links kept rail cars in position while they were loaded with iron extracted from the mines.
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