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"Pig Iron" is considered to be a mid-level product of smelting iron ore. It is commonly used to produce wrought iron and steel. The above specimin would have been produced straight out of the blast furnace and then transported elsewhere to be…

Railroad spikes would fasten the heavy iron railroad tracks to the ground. Larger spikes were commonly used on standard grade railroad tracks and smaller spikes would be used in constructing railcar switches.

This document is included in Proceedings of the New Jersey Historical Society, Series 1. Vol. VII. 1853-1855. The biography was read by Tuttle in front of the New Jersey Historical Society on May 19, 1853. The author painted a very complex image of…

This is a page from the ledger of records from the Hungarian Reformed Church of Franklin. records were kept about meetings and finances relating to the church. This page in particular is interesting because it shows the respect and authority that…

This document listed as form number 228 is a Declaration of Intention (An Alien about to Depart). The form lists the place and date of birth, occupation, purpose of travel, and destination of Josef Szabo. The form also lists references who presumably…

This is the official declaration of intent to renounce his Hungarian citizenship and become a citizen of the United States of America by Sandor Zsakoi. The document lists details including his date of birth, the name of his wife, her address in…

The clock tower at the beginning of Broadway in Denville, NJ. It was built to commemorate Denville's centennial.

The Chester Railroad Company was critical to the expansion of the iron industry in Chester. Stations such as this afforded both experienced and novice miners easy access to the thirty eight mines opened in the area.

This Georgian style home built in the early 1770s in Morristown was owned by Jacob Ford Jr., an American Revolutionary militia officer. After his death, his widow, Theodosia, gave permission for George Washington to use the home as his headquarters…

This building was constructed in 1870 for town doctor Dr. Smith Hedges. It also contained a wallpaper and printing business owned by George Conover. Later in the 1880s the building also served as the town post office.

This depicts the Franklin Falls and some of the buildings that surround the Franklin Pond Park.The pond and the park around it served as the recreational hub for Franklin. During the summer months, local residents would swim and fish in the pond as…

This photograph shows the partially renovated Hungarian Reformed Church in Franklin, NJ. The exterior view of the church shows the new foundations and the modern addition on the rear of the building as well as elements of the original structure.

This newsletter compiled in 1933 celebrates the 25 year history of the Hungarian Reformed Church in Franklin, New Jersey. The newsletter marks some of the major past and current events of the church including active members, members who have passed …

Hungarian Day is celebrated on the first Saturday of June each year (at least in New Brunswick - more info to follow). The day celebrates the many aspects of Hungarian culture including food, song, and dance. The culminating event in many such…

School text book used for teaching the Hungarian alphabet, songs, and poems. it was common to include the use of poetry, song, and prayers when teaching dual-language speakers to aid in acquisition of the different tone and rhythm of the Hungarian…

This sash was worn by members of the Hungarian Men's Association members in Franklin New Jersey. The sash can be seen depicted in a 1932 group portrait of the group sited above.

The two dolls are dressed in the traditional Hungarian peasant costume. These dolls offer a wonderful glimpse into the type of design and pattern-work that is found across a wide range of Hungarian textiles. From the flower-print dress, to the…

This photograph card depicts a Hungarian family taken at a studio in Debrecen, Hungary. The back of the photograph states that photographs can be ready in 5 minutes. The photographer is listed as Gyula Buchsbaum.

This group photograph shows students and the teacher of the Hungarian School in Franklin Township. Much like the modern "Sunday School," Hungarian-American children would attend Hungarian School one day on the weekend where they would study the…

This image depicts a group of Hungarian miners presumably drinking after work. The workers are depicted with a keg and bottles in hand.

This group photograph shows students and the teacher of the Hungarian School in Franklin Township. Much like the modern "Sunday School," Hungarian-American children would attend Hungarian School one day on the weekend where they would study the…

This photograph depicts the wedding of Joseph Szabo and Ethel Pope (Papp). Joseph Szabo seems to have been a prominent member of the Hungarian-American community of Franklin (more information to come). Of note here is the fact that while…

This mineral is common to Northern New Jersey. Metallic iron ores are normally found in bands underground called banded iron formations. These minerals are high in iron oxide and are commonly inserted into a blast furnace during process known as…

A length of heavy grade railroad rail found outside of the Chester Blast Furnace.

This is a map of Morris County from 1853. Note that the county only had 11 townships - Chester, Chatham, Hanover, Jefferson, Mendham, Morristown, Pequannock, Randolph, Rockaway, Roxbury, and Washington.

The Miller's House is an excellent example of what was known as a Patch House. With the influx of miners as more shafts were opened, housing needed to be quickly provided. Patch Houses received their names due to the fact that they were quickly…

This picture shows the housing that the Zinc Company of Franklin had established for its workers in Franklin,new Jersey. The housing was simple and functional but served the workers and their families. The base of these houses can still be seen in…

This image depicts a miner at work in the mine. This image shows the structure of the zinc mines in Franklin.

Commissioned in 1808, John Haines of Chester owned 10 shares in the company was was designated it's director. This was a major transportation artery in Northern New Jersey and vital to the growth of the agricultural communities and the mines.

The location of Howell's General store, which served the townspeople, farmers and miners alike, is today a convenience store.

Built in 1856, this building is the oldest Congregational church west of the Hudson River. The church's prior site was built in 1747 nearby.

This church not only served the Presbyterian community in Chester and Mendham, but also members from nearby Roxbury and Mt. Olive. Built in 1852, miners and farmers would have worshipped side by side at this location in the 1880's

This factory has had several different owners over the decades. It began life in 1844 the Van Doren Brothers built threashing machines for the area farms. Mine baron Daniel Budd housed Davidson Manufacturing in this building after the Civil War. The…

Upon removing the ore from the earth, Chester's early miners would need to load the raw minerals from the railroad cars into the blast furnace. Overhead gliders, attached to rails on the blast furnace facility's ceiling would guide containers full of…

Joseph Percy Crain (or Crane) was born in 1841, although it is uncertain where he was born. He moved to northern New Jersey at an early age and became a schoolteacher in the town of Rockaway (now - Denville) where he changed his last name to Crayon.…

This is a group portrait of the Hungarian Band which was organized in 1918. The band conductor at the time of the photograph was Stephen Bendes, who was brought over from Perth Amboy to direct the band. In his book, "The Story of an Immigrant Group…

When the Senate rejected the Versailles Treaty in 1919, the United States technically remained at war. On July 2, 1921 President Warren G. Harding signed a separate peace with Germany. The treaty was signed by Harding at the estate of Joseph S.…

Track guage is defined as the amount of distance between two railroad rails. The train's gear, or undercarriage, must be a compatible width and wheel size. In May of 1886 the Pennsylvania Railroad and the southern railroads agreed upon a national…

Weighing close to twenty pounds, these links kept rail cars in position while they were loaded with iron extracted from the mines.

The railroads were an extremely critical component of the iron mining industry. Large sized railroad spikes were used in railroad switches, as were the large metal connector plates. The large size of the spikes was desirable due to the intricate…

J. Percy Crayon was a schoolteacher and amateur historian from present-day Denville, New Jersey. In the late 19th century, he compiled a record of all the major founding families of Morris County. The book includes many important families,…

This is a sketch of Rockaway from the Morris Canal in 1844. To the right is the First Presbyterian Church of Rockaway which was founded in 1752. The church's construction was funded by notable New Jerseyans including William Winds, a Revolutionary…

Slag is the by-product of the smelting or iron ore. As the smelting process nears it's conclusion, the ore's impurities rises to the surface of the molten iron. Different smelting processes produce varying types of slag. In the 1880's it was common…

This snapshot of Chester circa 1880 provides a look at daily life at the time before the first mine shafts were opened. We clearly see Chester's importance as a travel hub, as the stagecoach is waiting to either take on or let off passengers at the…

This ore sample was extracted from the Swayze Mine in nearby Roxbury, New Jersey. It is yet another example of the different types of ore found in Northern New Jersey available to the miners of Chester
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